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ALLERGIC DISEASES IN TYPE 1 DIABETIC PATIENTS: A BRIEF REVIEW
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is considered an autoimmune disease mediated by Th1 lymphocytes, while allergic diseases are characterized by Th2-mediated immune response. Their incidence is rising in developed countries and the interaction between autoimmune and atopic diseases has been a subject of interest for decades. There are many controversies about the association or mutual exclusion of these diseases, but classical paradigm based on the assumption that diseases mediated by Th1 and Th2 should be mutually exclusive, has been revised considering both the role of regulatory T cells Threg, and the environmental factors involved. The aim of this review is to investigate the association of allergic diseases (rhinitis, asthma, dermatitis) in patient diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The studies that attempted to shed light on this topic had surprisingly varied results. These ranged from statistically signifi cant proof of an inverse association between an autoimmune disease and one or several atopic ones to other implying positive associations. Although up to now studies on this subject present seemingly discordant results, each attempt raises new questions and sheds light on new factors involved in the interaction of these diseases. They present much needed stepping stones for future studies to learn from and adapt.
Keywords: allergy, diabetes mellitus type 1, atopic disease, rhinitis